Sunday, 19 April 2015

Mirza Ghalib Poetry 2015

Mirza Ghalib Biography
source (google.com)
Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan (Urdu/Persian: مرزا اسد اللہ بیگ خان) was a classical Urdu and Persian poet from India during British colonial rule. His also known as 'Mirza Asadullah Khan Galib', 'Mirza Galib', 'Dabir-ul-Mulk' and 'Najm-ud-Daula'. His pen-names was Ghaliband Asad or Asad or Galib. During his lifetime the Mughals were eclipsed and displaced by the British and finally deposed following the defeat of the Indian rebellion of 1857, events that he wrote of. Most notably, he wrote several ghazals during his life, which have since been interpreted and sung in many different ways by different people. He is considered, in South Asia, to be one of the most popular and influential poets of the Urdu language. Ghalib today remains popular not only in India and Pakistan but also amongst diaspora communities around the world. Mirza Ghalib was born in Agra into a family descended from Aibak Turks who moved to Samarkand after the downfall of the Seljuk kings. His paternal grandfather, Mirza Qoqan Baig Khan was a Saljuq Turk who had immigrated to India from Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan) during the reign of Ahmad Shah (1748–54). He worked at Lahore, Delhi and Jaipur, was awarded the subdistrict of Pahasu (Bulandshahr, UP) and finally settled in Agra, UP, India. He had 4 sons and 3 daughters. Mirza Abdullah Baig Khan and Mirza Nasrullah Baig Khan were two of his sons. Mirza Abdullah Baig Khan (Ghalib's father) got married to Izzat-ut-Nisa Begum, and then lived at the house of his father in law. He was employed first by the Nawab of Lucknow and then the Nizam of Hyderabad, Deccan. He died in a battle in 1803 in Alwar and was buried at Rajgarh (Alwar, Rajasthan). Then Ghalib was a little over 5 years of age. He was raised first by his Uncle Mirza Nasrullah Baig Khan. Mirza Nasrullah Baig Khan (Ghalib's uncle) started taking care of the three orphaned children. He was the governor of Agra under the Marathas. The British appointed him an officer of 400 cavalrymen, fixed his salary at Rs.1700.00 month, and awarded him 2 parganas in Mathura (UP, India). When he died in 1806, the British took away the parganas and fixed his pension as Rs. 10,000 per year, linked to the state of Firozepur Jhirka (Mewat, Haryana). The Nawab of Ferozepur Jhirka reduced the pension to Rs. 3000 per year. Ghalib's share was Rs. 62.50 / month. Ghalib was married at age 13 to Umrao Begum, daughter of Nawab Ilahi Bakhsh (brother of the Nawab of Ferozepur Jhirka). He soon moved to Delhi, along with his younger brother, Mirza Yousuf Khan, who had developed schizophrenia at a young age and later died in Delhi during the chaos of 1857. 

In accordance with upper class Muslim tradition, he had an arranged marriage at the age of 13, but none of his seven children survived beyond infancy. After his marriage he settled in Delhi. In one of his letters he describes his marriage as the second imprisonment after the initial confinement that was life itself. The idea that life is one continuous painful struggle which can end only when life itself ends, is a recurring theme in his poetry. One of his couplets puts it in a nutshell: 

"The prison of life and the bondage of grief are one and the same 
Before the onset of death, how can man expect to be free of grief?" 
In 1850, Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar II revived upon Mirza Ghalib the title of "Dabeer-ul-Mulk". The Emperor also added to it the additional title of Najm-ud-daulah.The conferment of these titles was symbolic of Mirza Ghalib’s incorporation into the nobility of Delhi. He also received the title of 'Mirza Nosha' by the emperor, thus adding Mirza as his first name. He was also an important courtier of the royal court of the Emperor. As the Emperor was himself a poet, Mirza Ghalib was appointed as his poet tutor in 1854. He was also appointed as tutor of Prince Fakhr-ud Din Mirza, eldest son of Bahadur Shah II,(d. 10 July 1856). He was also appointed by the Emperor as the royal historian of Mughal Court. 

Being a member of declining Mughal nobility and old landed aristocracy, he never worked for a livelihood, lived on either royal patronage of Mughal Emperors, credit or the generosity of his friends. His fame came to him posthumously. He had himself remarked during his lifetime that although his age had ignored his greatness, it would be recognized by later generations. After the decline of Mughal Empire and rise of British Raj, despite his many attempts, Ghalib could never get the full pension restored.

Ghalib started composing poetry at the age of 11. His first language was Urdu, but Persian and Turkish were also spoken at home. He got his education in Persian and Arabic at a young age. When Ghalib was in his early teens, a newly converted Muslim tourist from Iran (Abdus Samad, originally named Hormuzd, a Zoroastrian) came to Agra. He stayed at Ghalibs home for 2 years. He was a highly educated individual and Ghalib learned Persian, Arabic, philosophy, and logic from him. 

Although Ghalib himself was far prouder of his poetic achievements in Persian, he is today more famous for his Urdu ghazals. Numerous elucidations of Ghalib's ghazal compilations have been written by Urdu scholars. The first such elucidation or Sharh was written by Ali Haider Nazm Tabatabai of Hyderabad during the rule of the last Nizam of Hyderabad. Before Ghalib, the ghazal was primarily an expression of anguished love; but Ghalib expressed philosophy, the travails and mysteries of life and wrote ghazals on many other subjects, vastly expanding the scope of the ghazal. This work is considered his paramount contribution to Urdu poetry and literature. 

In keeping with the conventions of the classical ghazal, in most of Ghalib's verses, the identity and the gender of the beloved is indeterminate. The critic/poet/writer Shamsur Rahman Faruqui explains that the convention of having the "idea" of a lover or beloved instead of an actual lover/beloved freed the poet-protagonist-lover from the demands of realism. Love poetry in Urdu from the last quarter of the seventeenth century onwards consists mostly of "poems about love" and not "love poems" in the Western sense of the term. 

The first complete English translation of Ghalib's ghazals was written by Sarfaraz K. Niazi and published by Rupa & Co in India and Ferozsons in Pakistan. The title of this book is Love Sonnets of Ghalib and it contains complete Roman transliteration, explication and an extensive lexicon. 
Mirza Ghalib Pics Pictures Photos Images2015
 Mirza Ghalib Pics Pictures Photos Images2015
 Mirza Ghalib Pics Pictures Photos Images2015
 Mirza Ghalib Pics Pictures Photos Images2015
 Mirza Ghalib Pics Pictures Photos Images2015
 Mirza Ghalib Pics Pictures Photos Images2015
 Mirza Ghalib Pics Pictures Photos Images2015

Tuesday, 14 April 2015

American Poetry Pics Piitures Photos Images 2015

American Poetry Pics Piitures Photos Images 2015
American Poetry Pics Piitures Photos Images 2015 
American Poetry Pics Piitures Photos Images 2015
 American Poetry Pics Piitures Photos Images 2015
 American Poetry Pics Piitures Photos Images 2015
 American Poetry Pics Piitures Photos Images 2015
 American Poetry Pics Piitures Photos Images 2015
 American Poetry Pics Piitures Photos Images 2015
American Poetry Pics Piitures Photos Images 2015
American Poetry Pics Piitures Photos Images 2015 

Saturday, 9 August 2014

Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures

Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures

Source (Google.com)
Poetry is often a tough sell to today's college undergraduates. Heck, poetry is a tough sell these days to almost anyone who doesn't read or write it professionally. Ask people to name their three favorite foods, or actors, or even novelists, and they generally respond well. Ask them to name their three favorite poets - or, harder yet, their three favorite living poets - and they generally respond with bewilderment, laughter, or silence.
Like so much else, things weren't always this way. With its origins in religious ritual, oral history, and royal celebration, poetry had evolved by the 16th century to become the most respected literary genre. Want to impress your friends and intimidate your enemies? Write a witty sonnet sequence like Sir Philip Sidney's "Astrophel and Stella" (1591), which circulated among his courtly friends like any good inside joke, or a devastating satire like John Dryden's "MacFlecknoe" (1682), which destroyed for all time the reputation of a literary rival. By the early 18th century, poets like Alexander Pope could make a full-time living producing modern translations of classics as well original verses in a variety of sub-genres. Pope excelled at mock-heroic poems, which became particularly popular after John Milton's monumental Paradise Lost (1674) raised the bar for the English epic to truly heavenly heights.
But a funny thing happened to poetry on its way into the 18th century. It began to lose readers to a young rival genre, written in straightforward prose, which dealt primarily in stories of contemporary life. At least partially as a result of such competition, poets looking to distinguish their work began turning away from longer, narrative-oriented verses and toward shorter expressions of personal feeling and observation that the novel, with its orientation toward the lives of others, couldn't match. In fact, writers began to suggest that poetry could best maintain its value precisely as a counterbalance to the hustle and bustle of modern life:
"For a multitude of causes, unknown to former times, are now acting with a combined force to blunt the discriminating powers of the mind, and, unfitting it for all voluntary exertion, to reduce it to a state of almost savage torpor. . . . When I think upon this degrading thirst after outrageous stimulation, I am almost ashamed to have spoken of the feeble endeavor made in these volumes to counteract it."
So wrote William Wordsworth in the 1800 preface to the collection of poetry he and his friend, S.T. Coleridge, had first published two years earlier. Now, keep in mind that the "multitude of causes" Wordsworth knew when he wrote about distracting entertainment consisted primarily of newspapers, novels, and melodramas. Can you imagine what he would have said about today's plethora of
"outrageous stimulation[s]," many of them frequently available 24/7 at the click of a button?
From a combination of necessity and creativity, then, poetry in the 19th century carved out a niche for itself primarily as a refuge from the business of everyday life. But the price was steep: it lost most of its audience to more immediately accessible forms of entertainment. Today, Amazon.com currently lists nearly 30 categories in its Books section, including "Crafts, Hobbies & Home" and "Mysteries, Thrillers & Suspense." Poetry is not one of them.
Why not? Certainly, poetry demands a different kind of attention than our other everyday pursuits. To get something meaningful out of a well-written poem, whether from the Renaissance or by one of today's many thought-provoking poets, one must be willing to linger over it, word by word and sentence by sentence. This kind of slow reading is not something most of us are used to doing, nor is it something our culture in general tends to encourage or reward. But perhaps that's precisely why poetry should still have a place at the literary table. By forcing us to slow down, good poetry encourages us to take at least a little more time to think about the world we live in, our place in it, and the language we use to describe that relationship.

Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures


Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures


Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures


Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures


Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures


Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures


Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures


Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures


Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures


Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures


Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures


Missing Poetry 2014 Pics Images Photos Pictures



Monday, 16 June 2014

Epic Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics

Epic Poetry History
source(google.com)
Epic Features
These book-long poems are unlike most other poems we are familiar with, and not just for their length. They are different in that:

    1. they switch around from scene to scene and

    2. there is dialogue, like a play.

Epic = Drama + Narrative

Speeches make up so much of epic poems that Plato called epic poetry a mixture of dramatic and narrative literature, according to classical scholar Albin Lesky.
Oral Tradition of Epic Poetry

Lesky says the speeches might be a throwback to the oral tradition of epic, where the epic story was passed down, from master storyteller to pupil, possibly within a family. The storyteller or "rhapsode" played a lyre as he sang his improvised epic song. The epic song was composed of elements from myth and folklore welded into place by means of the rhapsode's skilled insertion of formulaic elements.
Epic Hero

The central figure of ancient epic poetry is the hero. In the 3 major ancient classical epics, the heroes are

    the Greek Achilles, in the Iliad,
    the Greek Odysseus in the Odyssey, and
    the Trojan Aeneas in the Aeneid.

Characteristics of Epic Poetry

    Epic heroes come from the heroic era, which precedes the Archaic Age in ancient Greece and the founding of Rome by the legendary king Romulus.
    The heroes of epic literature are bound by a code of honor.
    The form of the epic is verse -- Dactylic Hexameters -- marking it immediately as poetry.
    The language of epic poetry is often formulaic.
    The material of epic poetry is elevated; it does not dwell on the banal details of life.
    Epic poetry tends to have catalogues. Catalogues (of things like ships or booty) tend to be long.
    Speeches are frequent.

Albin Lesky, A History of Greek Literature, translated by James Willis and Cornelis de heer. New York: Thomas Y. Cromwell Company. 1966.
Epic Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics
Epic Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics
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Elements Of Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics

Elements Of Poetry Biography
source(google.com)
For many centuries, poetry movements and communities have served as the most provocative, creative, vital, engaging, and oft-underground elements of regional and national literary trends. The simple joy of gathering for a single or group reading, listening to verse, hearing background stories, and discussing poesy has joined and empowered poets from ancient Athens to the streets of San Francisco. The assemblies launched social and political discourse while feeding creative explosions that, in nearly all cases, involved the arts and music as well.Despite the popular view of most poets as solitary, hermetic people, communities are vital to most working poets – which is why, in any given week, thousands of open-mic and guest poetry readings take place in the United States. Whether we’re studying the history of poetry or listening to an individual poet, it’s enticing to make connections between two poetic periods, or between a poet and his or her influences. In doing so, we invariably set foot inside a poetic movement or community. 
Elements Of Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics
Elements Of Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics
Elements Of Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics
Elements Of Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics
Elements Of Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics
Elements Of Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics
Elements Of Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics
Elements Of Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics
Elements Of Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics
Elements Of Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics
Elements Of Poetry 2014 Images Photos Pictures Pics